Category Archives: Health Wise

Grooming is a man thing

Does one cream fit all? No, not anymore. Not just women, but the men, are equally conscious of their looks. After all, it pays to look presentable, and well-groomed. And unlike the common perception that men aren’t bothered enough to pay attention to their skin, beard, hair, men do care, and a lot more than ever. True that! Even though the millennial generation has grown up watching the men in the family apply nothing more than Old Spice after shaving lotion as far as grooming was concerned, and it was the only indulgence. Then came the onslaught of creams, and here too, they were happy to use the products meant only for women because none existed for them. But going by the way the men’s grooming market is expanding in every conceivable dimension – categories that people are using, diversity of choice variables, price points that are operational, and so on, there is one cream for every season, to suit any occasion and indeed, for a good reason. Be it skin care, body and bath, hair care, or beard and moustache; a man is spoiled for choice when it comes to a grooming range explicitly meant for them, from the tip to that toe, nothing is off that grooming range. Because a well-groomed man is a complete man.

Shillpi A singh

https://www.freepressjournal.in/lifestyle/male-grooming-is-booming

Rheumatoid Arthritis is more common in women

On World Arthritis Health, Dr Siddharth M. Shah says that Rheumatoid Arthritis impacts the immune system attacks its joints and organs. It results in inflammation, destruction, and damage of the involved joints, tissues, or organs. Like most autoimmune problems, rheumatoid arthritis also affects women more commonly than men. 

Rheumatoid Arthritis is an autoimmune condition that predominantly affects the joints in one’s body. It may also affect other parts like the skin, lungs, eyes, heart, blood vessels, and bones. A dysfunctional immune system characterises autoimmune disorders. The body’s immune mechanism, which is supposed to fight against harmful bacteria and viruses, attacks its joints, tissues, and organs. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system attacks its joints and organs. It results in inflammation, destruction, and damage of the involved joints, tissues, or organs. Like most autoimmune problems, rheumatoid arthritis also affects women more commonly than men. Statistically, it occurs three times more in women than men and is typically seen amongst 30 to 60-year-olds.

What causes the gender differences in rheumatoid arthritis? Rheumatoid arthritis not only affects women more but also causes a severe disease manifestation in them. Although the exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, genetic, hormonal, environmental, and lifestyle factors are assumed to play a role. The gender differences can be attributed to genetic (X chromosome) and hormonal factors. Women’s immune systems are stronger and more reactive; this might help explain a greater prevalence of autoimmune problems. The X-linked genetic factors can also be held responsible for severe disease in women.

Hormonal factors are thought to play a role because the disease is influenced by pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding, menopause, and the menstrual cycle. These significant bodily changes fluctuate the hormonal balance in the body. Generally, normal levels of female hormones Oestrogen and Progesterone protect against rheumatoid arthritis.

  • Sometimes, women who have rheumatoid arthritis may experience disease remission during pregnancy. The condition is also known to flare up post-childbirth.
  • Breastfeeding has been found to reduce the risk of getting rheumatoid arthritis.
  • The disease may appear after having a baby or around menopause.
  • Women may experience worsening symptoms during the second week of their menstrual cycle when the hormonal levels are low.

The disease severity is greater, and its progression is faster in women. Research suggests that women may experience more physical pain for the same painful stimulus as compared to men. Rheumatoid arthritis is also known to cause more disability in women as they have lesser muscle strength than men. In contrast, the male hormone Testosterone suppresses the immune system, which is primarily responsible for the disease, explaining the less severity of symptoms in men.

How to deal with Rheumatoid Arthritis?

  • It is best to seek timely treatment from a specialist and follow up regularly
  • Avoid smoking as it worsens the symptoms
  • Moderate alcohol consumption may have some beneficial effects as it tends to reduce exhibitory symptoms by reducing inflammatory activity
  • Maintain a healthy body weight as being overweight can worsen your rheumatoid arthritis
  • Regular exercise has been found to improve rheumatoid arthritis
  • Frequently consume fish rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids to gain protection against rheumatoid arthritis

Although there is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis, modern medical treatments can help keep the disease under control and achieve remission. The importance of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in women cannot be stressed enough, as they are likely to have a severe disease with rapid progression. Hence, proper, timely medical care helps limit disability and improves the quality of life.

(Dr Siddharth M. Shah is Consultant Orthopaedics & Joint Replacement Surgeon, SL Raheja Hospital, Mahim)

Breastfeeding is a blessing

World Breastfeeding Week: Dr Sushma Tomar explains why it is good for mother & baby.

Breastfeeding is a special phase in a mother’s life and is remembered with a sense of pride. It gives the best sense of satisfaction to a mother. Moreover, breastfeeding is the most effective way in which a mother and baby connect and bond together. But beyond this, breast milk is the best for every baby. It has many benefits for both the mother and the child.

BREASTFEEDING IS BENEFICIAL TO MOTHERS FOR THEIR PHYSICAL & MENTAL HEALTH:

Promotes faster weight loss after birth, burning about 500 extra calories a day to build and maintain a milk supply. Breastfeeding helps in uterus contraction, so it comes to normal size and controls post-delivery bleeding

  • Increases self-confidence
  • Reduces Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
  • Reduces the chances of Anemia
  • Lessens the risk of postpartum Depression and build a positive mood
  • Produces the naturally soothing hormones Oxytocin and Prolactin that promote stress reduction and positive feelings in the nursing mother
  • Supports the wellness of body, mind, and spirit for the whole family
  • Improves emotional and physical bonding between the mother and the child
  • Minimises the chances of Breast Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Endometriosis, Osteoporosis, Diabetes, Hypertension, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cardiac Disease and skin diseases
  • Acts as a natural contraceptive for a limited time (speak to your gynaecologist about this)

A BREASTFED BABY HAS 

  • A strong immune system
  • Cries less overall and have fewer incidences of childhood illness
  • No digestive issues as breast milk has a low osmotic load; the fats are digested better. It is rich in protein and lactoalbumin. 
  • Less diarrhoea, constipation, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, and preterm necrotizing enterocolitis
  • Fewer colds and respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia, respiratory syncytial virus and whooping cough
  • Fewer ear infections, especially those that damage hearing
  • Fewer cases of bacterial meningitis
  • Better vision
  • Lower rates of infant mortality & Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 

Above all, breast milk provides abundant and easily absorbed nutritional components, antioxidants, enzymes, immune properties, and live antibodies from the mother. A mother’s more mature immune system makes antibodies against the germs she and her baby have been exposed to. These antibodies enter her milk to help protect her baby from illness. Immunoglobulin A coats the lining of the baby’s immature intestines helping germs and allergens from leaking through. Breast milk also contains substances that naturally soothe infants. So, if you are thinking breastfeeding may cause harm to you and your baby, think again.

(Dr Sushma Tomar is Consultant Obstetrics & Gynecology, Fortis Hospital, Kalyan)

A, B, C, D, E of Hepatitis

Did you know that sharing needles, having unprotected sex, and drinking large amounts of alcohol can put you at a higher risk of contracting the Hepatitis virus? On World Hepatitis Day, Dr Rakesh Patel suggests a few hygiene practices to protect oneself from the illness.

Life depends on the liver.

New Delhi, July 28, 2021: Globally, around 325 million people live with Hepatitis infection. Hepatitis is referred an inflammation of the liver that can cause complications. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. The common cause of Hepatitis is a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of Hepatitis as well. These include Autoimmune Hepatitis and Hepatitis, which occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune Hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue. Common forms of Viral Hepatitis include:

Hepatitis A: This form of Hepatitis does not lead to chronic infection and usually has no complications. The liver usually heals from Hepatitis A within several months. However, occasional deaths from Hepatitis A have occurred due to liver failure, and some people have required a liver transplant for Acute Hepatitis A infection. Hepatitis A can be prevented by vaccination.

Hepatitis B: It is transmitted through contact with infectious body fluids, such as blood, vaginal secretions, or semen, containing the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Injection drug use, having sex with an infected partner or sharing razors with an infected person increase your risk of getting Hepatitis B. The earlier in life Hepatitis B is contracted, the more likely it is to become chronic. People can carry the virus without feeling sick but can still spread the virus. Hepatitis B can be prevented by getting a vaccine.

Hepatitis C: About 75% to 85% of patients with Hepatitis C develop a chronic liver infection. It often does not show any symptoms. No vaccine is yet available to prevent Hepatitis C.

Hepatitis D: Hepatitis D only happens to people who are infected by the Hepatitis B virus. If you are vaccinated against Hepatitis B, you will be protected against the Hepatitis D virus.

Hepatitis E: This type of Hepatitis is spread by ingesting contaminated food or water. Hepatitis E is common throughout the world. Even though vaccines exist, they are not available everywhere.

Most people recover from Hepatitis, and the disease is often preventable. However, it is still considered a serious health risk because it can:

  • Destroy the liver tissue
  • Spread easily from person to person
  • Weaken the body’s immune system
  • Cause the liver to fail
  • Cause liver cancer
  • Cause death (in rare cases)

TIPS TO PREVENT HEPATITIS: Hepatitis is a preventable disease, and the following precautions can keep you safe. Practising good hygiene is one key way to avoid contracting Hepatitis A and E. If you’re traveling, you should avoid:

  • Local water
  • Ice
  • Raw or undercooked shellfish and oysters
  • Raw fruit and vegetables

Hepatitis B, C, and D contracted through contaminated blood can be prevented by:

  • Not sharing drug needles
  • Not sharing razors
  • Not using someone else’s toothbrush
  • Not touching spilt blood          

Hepatitis B and C can also be contracted through sexual intercourse and intimate sexual contact. Practising safe sex by using condoms and dental dams can help decrease the risk of infection. Vaccination is another effective way to stay protected against Hepatitis A and B. Experts are currently developing vaccines against Hepatitis C. Above all, prevention, hygiene practices, and vaccination are the most effective tool against Hepatitis. Speak to your doctor today to know more.

Currently, we are facing an epidemic of another form of Hepatitis which is Fatty Liver Disease. This is because of sedentary life, changing eating habits and obesity. Also, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension are risk factors associated with it. It is diagnosed by sonography and Liver Function Test. If it’s not corrected, it will lead to the development of Cirrhosis and Liver Cancer. So a healthy traditional diet, weight control, exercise, and regular check will help prevent this disease which affects 25% of the population.

(Dr Rakesh Patel is Consultant, Gastroenterology, Fortis Hospital, Kalyan)

COVID19 Delta variant is 60% more transmissable than Alpha variant

Citing reports, Dr Chandrashekhar T. says this mutant has been responsible for several complications cropping up among patients even after recovery.

The Delta COVID19 variant is the new villain that has taken center stage. It is believed to be 60% more transmissible than the B.1.1.7 variant (or Alpha variant) and may be associated with an increased disease severity such as hospitalization risk. Several reports from across the country indicate that this mutant has been responsible for several complications cropping up among patients even after recovery. Here is what you know about the variant.

WHAT IS THE DELTA VARIANT? Variants are mutations of the Coronavirus. Scientists say viruses constantly mutate naturally as they replicate and circulate in their hosts. Sometimes these mutants disappear; other times, they persist. The Delta variant, known as B.1.617.2, is gaining ground worldwide and is said to have contributed to the country’s recent surge. Sometimes we can see a mutation in the mutated variant; this are called as double mutation.

According to WHO and CDC, the viruses prevalent in the United States, Europe, South America, and another part of Africa and the Asian region are of different mutants. The variant prevalent in the US is called Alfa, Beta, and Theta was prevalent in South America and Africa. Theta and Gamma were prevalent in European countries. Delta was prevalent in India and Asia by large, which has now spread to other nations too. Kappa variant was prevalent in Australia. Now, people should know that the Delta wave hasn’t come in the second wave only. It was there in the first wave as well. However, Coronavirus is an RNA virus and is in constant mutation with increasing transmissibility and virulence.

HOW DANGEROUS IS THE DELTA VARIANT? To begin with, it is important to know what variants of concern (VOC) are. There is evidence of an increase in transmissibility, more severe disease, significant reduction in neutralization by antibodies generated during previous infection or vaccination, reduced effectiveness of treatments or vaccines, or diagnostic detection failures are termed as VOC.

The Delta variant was under investigation/variant of Interest (VOI) even in the first wave, as it was termed as the variant of concern by the WHO. Therefore, WHO, ICMR, and other government agencies in India are closely watching its mutations. Therefore, the Delta virus falls under the category of a variant of concern as it is more transmittable, more virulent, and causes many complications.

HOW DOES THE DELTA VIRUS IMPACT HUMAN HEALTH? Now, we all know that COVID19 can cause multiple problems in the body. First is the clotting problem causing a brain stroke or a heart attack or a particular vessel getting blocked, causing gangrene of the limbs, legs, or hands or blood clots causing pulmonary embolism or even gangrene in the intestine. 

Apart from blood clots in the arteries of limbs, heart, and brain, COVID19 patients are coming with intestinal clots that are causing gangrene of the GI. Similarly, clotting can cause pancreatitis as well.

The other problem is the inflammation problem called that Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome. This causes symptoms including fever or Hypothermia, Tachycardia, Tachypnoea, and a change in blood leucocyte count. Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) is another issue. CRS occurs when the immune system responds too aggressively to an infection. It causes a variety of symptoms, including fever, headaches, and nausea.

IS VACCINATION MY ANSWER? Yes, the vaccines available to us in our country — Covishield, Covaxin, and Sputnik put up a good defence against this variant and hold an excellent efficacy rate. So, you might wonder if vaccines work, then what is the problem. The problem is that not everybody has been vaccinated. And the variant is at its peak when the rate of vaccinations nationally has slowed down. The vaccination program will soon ramp up. Apart from this, staying at home and following all necessary COVID19 safety protocols — social distancing, wearing a mask, and hand hygiene are essential.

(Dr Chandrashekhar T. is Chief Intensivist, Fortis Hiranandani Hospital, Vashi)

COVID19: DRDO’s 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose drug decoded

Dr Rahul Pandit talks about the drug that was approved for emergency use as an adjunct therapy in moderate to severe COVID19 patients by the Drugs Controller General of India early this month.

Mumbai, May 17, 2021: Adding another ammo to our battle against COVID19, the Government of India has introduced a promising anti-COVID19 drug called 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). The drug has been developed by the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), a lab of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), in collaboration with Dr Reddy’s Laboratories (DRL), Hyderabad. The drug was approved for emergency use as an adjunct therapy in moderate to severe COVID19 patients by the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) early this month.

WHAT IS 2-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE (2-DG)? 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose drug has historically been extensively tested for treating Cancer but is so far an unapproved drug. However, for COVID19, the drug shows promise. The drug comes in powder form in a sachet, which is taken orally by dissolving it in water. It accumulates in the virus-infected cells and prevents virus growth by stopping viral synthesis and energy production. Its selective accumulation in virally infected cells makes this drug unique. The Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), a lab of the DRDO, in collaboration with Dr Reddy’s Laboratories (DRL), Hyderabad, has been studying this drug in the context of radiation therapy for cancer.

The primary mechanism of the drug involves inhibiting glycolysis or one of how cells break down glucose for energy. While used to starve and kill cancer cells, this approach could also work in inhibiting virus cells too that were dependent on glycolysis for replication. When the pandemic broke out in India, INMAS, DRDO, and DRL switched their effort to explore the possibilities to use this drug to defeat COVID19. Tests at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, last year indicated that the drug demonstrably killed virus cells after which it progressed to trials in people. 

2-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE DRUG CLINICAL TRIAL: GATHERING CLINICAL EVIDENCE AND EFFICACY. In April 2020, INMAS started experimental examinations in Hyderabad with the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB). After which, the Central Drug Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) and the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) jointly granted permission for Phase-2 trials in May 2020. Between May to October 2020, the institute started initial trials on how COVID19 patients would respond to the drug. The drug worked well with no side effects, and the patients recovered quickly. Further on, the Phase 3 clinical trial was conducted between November 2020-March 2021 in Delhi, UP, Bengal, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. The results were favourable.

THE EFFICACY FACTOR: Clinical trial results have shown that this molecule helps in faster recovery of hospitalised patients and reduces supplemental oxygen dependence. The drug will be of immense benefit to the people suffering from COVID19. As per clinical data for efffficacy trends, the patients treated with the 2-DG drug showed faster symptomatic cure than Standard of Care (SoC) on various endpoints. A significantly higher proportion of patients improved symptomatically and became free from supplemental oxygen dependence (42% vs 31%) by day-3 compared to SoC, indicating an early relief from Oxygen therapy/dependence.

ACTING WITH RESPONSIBILITY: This drug comes when our nation is grappling to cope with the impact of the devastating second wave of COVID19, which has stressed our infrastructure and resources to its limit. I see a ray of hope, that with the availability of this drug, we may be able to reduce the burden of COVID19 and save as many lives as possible. Having said that, precaution is a must. No COVID19 medication should be taken without a doctor’s prescription. Moreover, hoarding drugs is a crime, and as responsible citizens of the nation, we must ensure that these medicines should be available and accessible to those who need it.

(Dr Rahul Pandit is Director-Critical Care, Fortis Hospitals Mumbai & Member of Maharashtra’s COVID Taskforce)

Zzz! Sound sleep was a major challenge for Indian adults during lockdown

The article was carried in all editions of The Free Press Journal on April https://www.freepressjournal.in/health/world-health-day-2021-indians-grapple-with-new-sleep-challenges

23% women in Mumbai are prone to anaemia while 27% men are predisposed to diabetes, reveals Indus Health Plus Survey

World Health Day: The study’s overall sample size in Maharashtra was 21,500 people while that for Mumbai was 2,978. These people underwent preventive health check-ups between October 2019 and February 2021.

Mumbai, April 7, 2021: On the occasion of World Health Day, Indus Health Plus Survey revealed that people in Maharashtra are susceptible to diabetes (27%), Vitamin B12 Deficiency (23%), dyslipidemia (17%), obesity (13%) followed by heart diseases (10%) and anaemia (10%). The key non-modifiable risk factor is the genetic makeup of an individual favoured by environmental, age, gender, stress and physiology, metabolism, which increases the onset and progression of lifestyle diseases. 

The study’s overall sample size was 21,500 people who underwent preventive health check-ups between October 2019 and February 2021. From Mumbai, the total sample size was 2,978 people. It was observed that the Mumbaikars are predisposed to diabetes (25%), dyslipidemia (18%), Vitamin B12 deficiency (16%), obesity (15%), followed by anaemia (14%) and heart diseases (12%). 

Amol Naikawadi, JMD, and Preventive Healthcare Specialist, Indus Health Plus, says, “Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are prevalent in India. These diseases tend to impact people in the most productive years of their lives and result in social and economic consequences. Another important aspect is that comorbid conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and heart diseases are high-risk conditions for COVID-19. Hence, proper management to keep them in control is vital, especially in this situation.” 

Measures to boost immunity

  • Get enough sleep
  • Eat more healthy fats and whole plant food
  • Stay hydrated
  • Take a probiotic supplement
  • Limit added sugars
  • Engage in moderate exercise
  • Manage stress
  • Maintain good hygiene
  • Avoid smoking and alcohol
  • Don’t consume excessive saturated fats

The trend report highlights that women are prone to anaemia (23%) and dyslipidemia (20%) compared to men. Men are at higher risk of diabetes (27%), Vitamin B12 deficiency (21%)and heart ailments (14%). 

The data gives us an insight into individual health needs to be taken very seriously. Health means physical, social, mental wellbeing with absence from diseases. Therefore, ensure regular health check-ups and follow-ups, personalized diet and lifestyle goals need to be set and followed, and strong immunity to protect from diseases. 

“While exposure to the SARS-Cov-2 virus remains the most decisive factor determining the chances of getting COVID-19, other possible factors may influence the response to infection. These risk factors include reduced immunity, presence of existing comorbidities, and age. The genetic variants can influence the response to COVID-19 by regulating the immune function that can make an individual less or more vulnerable than others. Therefore people must understand the value of prevention and continue to invest in timely and routine examination to monitor comorbidities and keep them at bay,” adds Naikawadi. 

The main focus of people should be on wellness and prevention of lifestyle diseases and to create a culture of healthy living among the younger generation. The best way to minimize the cost of treating lifestyle diseases is to invest in preventive healthcare, which accounts for a fraction of the money spent on corrective steps.

CATEGORYNo. of MEN: 1436 No. of WOMEN: 1542 Total: 2978
In %In %In %
ANAEMIA5%23%14%
DIABETES – F BSL27%23%25%
DYSLIPIDEMIA – TOTAL CHOLESTEROL16%20%18%
HEART PROBLEM – CT CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY14%9%12%
OBESITY16%13%15%
VITAMIN B 1221%12%16%

Do not ignore symptoms of tuberculosis! It’s curable.

World TB Day 2021: Tuberculosis kills more number of people in India every year than the lives COVID19 has claimed over the past 12 months? Today, all we need is a surge in our actions to reduce the TB burden, tells Dr Anshu Punjabi.  

New Delhi, March 24, 2021: In the past year, the COVID19 virus grabbed much of our attention. The collateral damage that it caused in one year is very unimaginable. But did you know, Tuberculosis (TB) kills a more significant number of people in India every year than the lives COVID19 has claimed over the past 12months?

Tuberculosis continues to inflict a large quantum of socioeconomic cost on our nation. Although TB has been curable and our government has made great strides to improve diagnosis and drug delivery mechanisms, our war with this deadly disease exists. All we need today is a surge in our actions to reduce the TB burden intensely. But how is that possible?

Well, the best approach to this is to sensitize people with the growing burden of TB and empower them enough to identify symptoms, report it early, undergo timely diagnosis, and complete adherence to treatment. So, first things first.

WHAT IS TUBERCULOSIS AND HOW DOES IT AFFECT US? TB is an infection caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and spreads through the air from one person to another when an infected person coughs, sneezes or laughs. Even though the bacteria travel easily, it’s not easy to be infected by TB. Most often, it’s spread between family members, close friends, and people who live or work together. TB most commonly affects the lungs, but it can affect other parts of the body as well, like lymph glands, abdomen, spine, joints, etc.

There are two kinds of tuberculosis (TB) infections — latent TB and active TB disease.

WHAT IS LATENT TB? In most healthy people, the body’s natural immune system kills the bacteria and there are no symptoms. Sometimes, the immune system cannot kill the bacteria but manages to prevent it from spreading in the body. You will not have any symptoms, but the bacteria will remain in your body – this is known as Latent TB. People with Latent TB are not infectious to others, and do not feel ill. It is usually happens to children. Sometimes, this dormant TB gets activated when the body’s immune system is extremely low, say in the case of HIV, cancer, diabetes, etc.

This may occur like a normal fever and can go unnoticed. In India, we do not treat latent TB, as most people would have been exposed to the bacteria at some point in time. Moreover, there is no good evidence that all these people will develop active TB disease in the future, or that treating Latent TB will prevent further reinfection.

WHAT IS AN ACTIVE TB? When the immune system is unable to kill or contain the bacteria, Active TB develops. The lungs’ Active TB disease is contagious, which means it can be spread from one person to another. It is most often spread through the air; these bacteria may enter the air when a person with TB disease of the Lungs or throat coughs. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and get infected. People get sick from the TB bacteria that are alive and active. 

SO, WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS?

  • Being in close contact with a person with Active Lung TB disease is highly risky
  • If you are in contact with any groups known for passing on TB, such as the homeless, injection drug users, and persons with HIV/AIDS
  • If you are living or working with people who are at high risk for TB, such as those in hospitals, homeless shelters, prisons, slums, or refugee camps 

MAJOR SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS THAT YOU SHOULDN’T IGNORE:

  • A cough that lasts two-three weeks or more
  • Pain in the chest, with cough or at rest     
  • Coughing up blood or thick mucous
  • Night sweats
  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Weight loss
  • Not wanting to eat
  • Fever, mainly in the evening
  • Swollen neck lymph-gland(s)

The longer people wait, the TB disease worsens. Although the stigma associated with TB has gone down significantly, people need to be alert, aware, and responsible when it comes to identifying symptoms and getting treated early. TB is treatable and curable. Treatment for drug-sensitive TB is a combination of antibiotics for six months. People with drug-resistant TB will need more extended treatment with at least 5-6 drugs under expert supervision.

(Dr Anshu Punjabi is Consultant-Pulmonologist & Sleep Medicine Expert, Fortis Hospital, Mulund; Image by Wilfried Pohnke from Pixabay

Safe water means good health. Do you know why?

On World Water Day, Dr Sonali Gautam explains poor water hygiene’s impact on one’s health, especially children.  

New Delhi, March 22, 2021: On World Water Day, while we all should aim to save the most precious gift and a vital life source, we must also focus on improving water supplies and hygiene. You must be wondering why, so let me explain the impact of poor water hygiene on health. Worldwide, 2.2 billion people lack access to safely managed drinking water, and 4.2 billion people lack safe sanitation. Unsafe hygiene practices are widespread, compounding the effects on people’s health. The impact on child mortality rates is devastating, with more than 2,97,000 children under five die annually from diarrhoeal diseases due to poor sanitation, poor hygiene, or unsafe drinking water.

In India, the problem of unsafe water is a substantial public health concern. Apart from illnesses such as diarrohea, jaundice, etc., unsafe water also contributes to Hepatitis A & E. Both these diseases are associated with inadequate and unsafe water supplies, poor sanitation & hygiene, leading to infection and inflammation of the liver.

What is Hepatitis A and E? Hepatitis A and E viruses are RNA virus, which primarily infects the liver, causing inflammation of the liver (Acute Hepatitis). Infection with Hepatitis A & E is usually self-limiting.

How is the infection acquired? Hepatitis A or E is spread primarily through food or water contaminated by faeces from an infected person (feco-oral route). It enters the liver from our gut and is then excreted again by our gut into the stool, thus completing the infection cycle.

Who are at risk for Hepatitis A or E? Not everyone who’s infected will have any evidence of this disease, as it may go unnoticed (asymptomatic disease). But still, these people can excrete viruses in their stool and continue to infect others (carriers).

Asymptomatic disease: India being a developing nation with poor sanitation conditions, more than 95% of children below five years of age are usually infected with these viruses, with an asymptomatic course. Thus, in India, antibody to Hepatitis A virus is nearly universally detectable by adolescence, and antibody to HEV increases during young adulthood to reach about 40% in adults.

How does it spread? Hepatitis A is usually spread person-to-person through food or water contamination. An infected person’s hands can become the source of infection after using the bathroom. The virus then spreads by direct contact or by food, beverages or other objects that the infected person handled. An infected individual can transmit the virus to others as early as two weeks before the symptoms begin to appear.

Symptomatic disease: International travellers to India, children from high-income families are at risk of developing Hepatitis A or E infection because they do not eat much from the streets and have not developed the required antibodies resulting in fever, stomach-ache and jaundice.

What are the symptoms of Hepatitis A or E?

  • Fever
  • Tiredness
  • Stomach upset
  • Loss of appetite
  • Dark yellow urine
  • Diarrhoea
  • Yellowish eye & skin called jaundice

Why is it dangerous? Unlike Hepatitis B & C, Hepatitis A does not cause Chronic Liver Disease and is rarely fatal. But it can cause debilitating symptoms and Fulminant Hepatitis (Acute Liver Failure), which is often fatal. Fulminant Hepatic Failure leading to death is seen in 1.8 % adults, and 10% in pregnant ladies.

Most people with Hepatitis E get better within a few months. Usually, it doesn’t lead to long-term illness, or Liver damage like other forms of Hepatitis do. But Hepatitis E can be dangerous for pregnant women or anyone with weak immune systems, including the elderly or ill.

How to prevent it? The best approach is to take all precautions to avoid Hepatitis and ensure safe drinking water for all. Make sure that your water source is clean and well maintained. Apart from this, follow this:

  • Hand sanitation: Frequent handwashes before meals and after using the washroom.
  • Avoid eating outside, especially if you are pregnant.
  • Hepatitis A vaccine: Vaccinate your children below six years (consult a paediatrician about this).

If you identify any of the above symptoms, kindly meet your Gastroenterologist for timely treatment and care to resolve the infection with expected full recovery.

(Dr Sonali Gautam, Consultant-Gastroenterology, Hiranandani Hospital, Vashi, a Fortis network hospital; Image from Pixabay)